Charging process of lithium battery.

Charging process of lithium battery.

The most suitable charging process for lithium-ion batteries can be divided into four stages: trickle charging, constant current charging, constant voltage charging, and charging termination.

Phase 1: trickle charging trickle charging is used to precharge the fully discharged battery cells (restorative charging). When the voltage of a lithium-ion battery is lower than about 3V, the battery shall be charged with a maximum 0.1C constant current.

Stage 2: constant current charging when the battery voltage rises above the trickle charging threshold, increase the charging current for constant current charging. The current of constant current charging is between 0.2C and 1.0c. The current during constant current charging is not required to be very accurate, and quasi constant current is also acceptable. In the linear charger design, the current often rises with the increase of battery voltage to minimize the heat dissipation problem on the transfer transistor.

Stage 3: constant voltage charging when the lithium-ion battery voltage rises to 4.2V, the constant current charging ends and the constant voltage charging stage begins. For optimal performance, the voltage stabilization tolerance should be better than +1%.

Stage 4: unlike nickel batteries, it is not recommended to continue trickle charging of lithium-ion batteries. Continuous trickle charging will lead to the plate plating effect of lithium metal. This will make the battery unstable and may lead to sudden automatic and rapid disassembly.

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