Complete collection of lithium battery cylindrical models, cylindrical lithium battery knowledge
Cylindrical lithium batteries are divided into lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, cobalt manganese mixture, and different ternary material systems. The shell is divided into steel shell and polymer. Batteries with different material systems have different advantages.
Complete list of lithium battery cylindrical models
Cell model Nominal voltage (V) Nominal capacity (MAH) Charging temperature (℃) Discharge temperature (℃) Charging current (a) Discharge current (a)
ICR18650 (three yuan) 3.7V 2200mAh 0~45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 2.2A (normal temperature 1c) 10A (normal temperature 5C)
ICR18650 (three yuan) 3.7V 2500mAh 0~45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 2.5A (normal temperature 1c) 25A (normal temperature 10c)
ICR18650 (three yuan) 3.7V 3000mAh 0~45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 3.0A (normal temperature 1C 15A (normal temperature 5C)
Icr21700 (three yuan) 3.7V 4000mAh 0~45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 4.0a (normal temperature 1c) 40A (normal temperature 10c)
Ncr18650b (three yuan) 3.6V 3350mAh 0~45℃ - 20~60℃ 1.625A 4.875A
Inr18650-30q (three yuan) 3.6V 3000mAh 0~45℃ - 20~75℃ 0.5C 15A
Ifr26650 (lithium iron phosphate) 3.2V 3200mAh - 20℃~+45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 3.2a (normal temperature 1c) 10A (normal temperature 3C)
Ifr32700 (lithium iron phosphate) 3.2V 5000mAh - 20℃~+45℃ - 40℃~+60℃ 5.0A (normal temperature 1c) 25A (normal temperature 5C)
Ifr26650 e3400 (lithium iron phosphate) 3.2V 3400mAh 0~60℃ - 10~60℃ 2.0V 10.2A
1、 What is a cylindrical lithium battery?
1. Definition of cylindrical battery
Low-temperature lithium iron phosphate battery 3.2V 20A
Low-temperature lithium iron phosphate battery 3.2V 20A
-Charging at 20 ℃, -40 ℃ 3C discharge capacity ≥ 70%
Charging temperature: -20~45 ℃
-Discharge temperature: -40~+55 ℃
-Maximum discharge rate supported at 40 ℃: 3C
-40 ℃ 3C discharge capacity retention rate ≥ 70%
Cylindrical lithium batteries are divided into lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, cobalt manganese mixture, and different ternary material systems. The shell is divided into steel shell and polymer. Batteries with different material systems have different advantages. At present, steel cylindrical lithium iron phosphate batteries are mainly used in columns, which are characterized by high capacity, high output voltage, good charge-discharge cycle performance, stable output voltage, large current discharge, stable electrochemical performance, safe use, wide working temperature range, and friendly to the environment. They are widely used in solar lamps, lawn lamps, backup energy, electric tools, and toy models.
2. Cylindrical battery structure
The structure of a typical cylindrical battery includes a shell, cap, positive electrode, negative electrode, diaphragm, electrolyte, PTC element, gasket, safety valve, etc. Generally, the battery shell is the negative pole of the battery, the cap is the positive pole of the battery, and the battery shell adopts a nickel-plated steel plate.
3. Advantages of cylindrical lithium battery
Low-temperature high energy density 18650 3350mah
Low-temperature high energy density 18650 3350mah
-40 ℃ 0.5c discharge capacity ≥ 60%
Charging temperature: 0~45 ℃
Discharge temperature: -40~+55 ℃
Specific energy: 240wh/kg
-40 ℃ discharge capacity retention rate: 0.5c discharge capacity ≥ 60%
Compared with soft pack and square lithium batteries, cylindrical lithium batteries have the longest development time, higher degree of standardization, more mature process, high yield, and low cost.
·The production process is mature, the cost of the pack is low, the yield of battery products is high, and the heat dissipation performance is good
·Cylindrical batteries have formed a series of internationally unified standard specifications and models, and the process is mature and suitable for mass continuous production.
·The cylinder has a large specific surface area and a good heat dissipation effect.
·Cylindrical batteries are generally sealed batteries, and there is no maintenance problem during use.
·The battery shell has high-pressure resistance, and there will be no phenomena such as square and flexible packaging battery expansion during use.
4. Cylindrical battery cathode material
At present, the mainstream cathode materials for commercial cylindrical batteries mainly include lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), ternary (NMC), and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), etc. batteries with different material systems have different characteristics. The comparison is as follows:
project Lithium cobaltate Lithium nickel cobalt manganese ternary (linicomno2) Lithium manganate (LiMn2O4) Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)
Tamping density (g/cm3) (LiCoO2) 2.0～2.3 2.2～2.4 1.0～1.4
Specific surface area (m2/g) 2.8～3.0 0.2～0.4 0.4～0.8 12~20
Gram capacity (mah/g) 0.4～0.6 140~180 90~100 130~140
Voltage platform (V) 135~140 three point five three-point eight three-point two
Cycle performance three point seven ≥ 500 times ≥ 300 times ≥ 2000 times
transition metal ≥ 500 times poor rich Very rich
Raw material costs poor high Cheap Cheap
environment protection Very high Containing nickel and cobalt non-toxic non-toxic
Safety performance Cobalt is preferably good excellent
Applicable fields difference Small battery / small power battery, low-cost battery Power battery / super large capacity power supply
advantage Small and medium batteries Stable electrochemical performance and good cycle performance Manganese resources are abundant, the price is low, and the safety performance is good High safety, environmental protection, long life
shortcoming "Stable charge and discharge, simple production process, expensive cobalt, and low cycle life" Cobalt is expensive has Low energy density and poor electrolyte compatibility Poor low-temperature performance, and low discharge voltage
5. Negative electrode material of the cylindrical battery
There are six kinds of negative electrode materials for cylindrical batteries: carbon negative electrode materials, alloy negative electrode materials, tin-based negative electrode materials, lithium-containing transition metal nitride negative electrode materials, nanomaterials, and nano negative electrode materials.
·Carbon nanomaterials negative electrode materials: at present, the negative electrode materials that have been used in lithium-ion batteries are carbon materials, such as artificial graphite, natural graphite, mesophase carbon microspheres, petroleum coke, carbon fiber, pyrolytic resin carbon, etc.
·Alloy anode materials: including tin-based alloys, silicon-based alloys, germanium-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, antimony-based alloys, magnesium-based alloys, and other alloys, and there are no commercial products at present.
· Tin-based negative electrode materials: tin-based negative electrode materials can be divided into tin oxide and tin-based composite oxide. Oxide refers to the oxide of various valence metal tins. There are no commercial products at present.
· Lithium-containing transition metal nitride cathode materials have no commercial products at present.
·Nanoscale materials: carbon nanotubes, nano alloy materials.
·Nano anode material: nano oxide material
2、 Cylindrical lithium battery cell
1. Cylindrical lithium-ion battery brand
Cylindrical lithium batteries are popular among lithium battery enterprises in Japan and South Korea, and there are also large-scale enterprises producing cylindrical lithium batteries in China. The earliest cylindrical lithium battery was invented by Sony Corporation of Japan in 1992.
Famous brands of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Sony, Panasonic, Sanyo, Samsung, LG, Wanxiang A123, BIC, Lishen, etc.
2. Types of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries
Cylindrical lithium-ion batteries are usually represented by five digits. From the left, the first and second digits refer to the battery diameter, the third and fourth digits refer to the battery height, and the fifth digit refers to the circle. There are many types of cylindrical lithium batteries, the more common ones are 10400, 14500, 16340, 18650, 21700, 26650, 32650, etc.
① 10440 battery
10440 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 10mm and a height of 44mm. It is the same size as what we often call the "No. 7 battery". This kind of battery has a small capacity, only a few hundred MAH, and is mainly used in mini electronic products. For example, flashlight, mini stereo, loudspeaker, etc.
② 14500 battery
14500 battery is a kind of lithium battery with a diameter of 14mm and a height of 50mm. This kind of battery is generally 3.7V or 3.2V. Its nominal capacity is relatively small, which is a little larger than the 10440 battery, which is generally 1600mAh. Its discharge performance is superior. The application fields are mainly consumer electronics, such as wireless audio, electric toys, digital cameras, etc.
③ 16340 battery
16340 battery is a kind of lithium battery with a diameter of 16mm and a height of 34mm. This kind of battery often appears in a strong light flashlight, LED flashlight, headlights, laser lights, lighting fixtures, etc. because its ruler is a little shorter and its capacity is not very small.
④ 18650 battery
18650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 18mm and a height of 65mm. Its biggest feature is that it has a very high energy density, which is almost 170 watt-hours/kg. Therefore, this battery is a battery with good cost performance. Most of the batteries we usually see are this kind of battery because it is a relatively mature lithium battery with good system quality stability in all aspects. It is widely applicable to battery capacity occasions of about 10-kilowatt hours, such as in In mobile phones, laptops, and other small appliances.
⑤ 21700 battery
21700 battery is a kind of lithium battery with a diameter of 21mm and a height of 70mm. Because its volume increases, the space utilization rate becomes larger, and the energy density of the cell monomer and system can be improved. Its volume energy density is much higher than that of the 18650 battery. It is widely used in digital, electric vehicles, balance cars, solar energy lithium battery street lights, LED lights, electric tools, etc.
⑥ 26650 battery
26650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 26mm and a height of 65mm, with a nominal voltage of 3.2V and a nominal capacity of 3200mah. This battery has excellent capacity and high consistency and has gradually become a trend to replace the 18650 battery. Many products in power batteries will also gradually favor it.
⑦ 32650 battery
32650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 32mm and a height of 65mm. This battery has a strong continuous discharge capacity, so it is more suitable for electric toys, backup power supplies, UPS batteries, wind power generation systems, and wind-solar complementary power generation systems.
3、 Development of cylindrical lithium battery market
The technological progress of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries mainly comes from the innovative research and application progress of key battery materials. Through the development of new materials, the battery performance, quality, cost, and safety are further improved. To meet the requirements of downstream applications for improving the specific energy of batteries, on the one hand, materials with high specific capacity can be used, on the other hand, high-voltage materials can be used by increasing the charging voltage.
Cylindrical lithium-ion batteries have developed from 14500 to Tesla 21700 batteries. In the near and medium-term development, while optimizing the existing system lithium-ion power battery technology to meet the large-scale development needs of new energy vehicles, we will focus on the development of new lithium-ion power batteries, improve their safety, consistency, life, and other key technologies, and simultaneously carry out forward-looking research and development of new system power batteries.
For the medium and long-term development of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries, while continuously optimizing and improving new lithium-ion power batteries, we will focus on the research and development of new system power batteries, significantly improve the specific energy, significantly reduce the cost, and realize the practical and large-scale application of new system power batteries.
4、 Comparison between cylindrical lithium battery and square lithium battery
1. Battery shape: the square size can be designed arbitrarily, while the cylindrical battery cannot be compared.
2. Magnification characteristics: due to the process limitation of welding multi-lug cylindrical batteries, the magnification characteristics are slightly worse than that of square multi-lug batteries.
3. Discharge platform: for lithium batteries with the same anode and cathode materials and electrolyte, theoretically, the discharge platform should be the same, but the discharge platform is square lithium batteries is slightly higher.
4. Product quality: the manufacturing process of cylindrical batteries is relatively mature, the probability of pole pieces having secondary slitting defects is low, and the maturity and automation of the winding process are relatively high. At present, the lamination process is still semi-manual, which has an adverse impact on the quality of batteries.
5. Pole lug welding: the pole lug of a cylindrical battery is easier to weld than that of a square lithium battery; The square lithium battery is prone to false soldering, which affects the battery quality.
6. Pack grouping: cylindrical batteries are easier to use, so pack technology is simple and the heat dissipation effect is good; The problem of heat dissipation should be solved when packing square lithium batteries.
7. Structural features: the chemical activity at the corners of the square lithium battery is poor, the energy density of the battery is easy to decay after long-term use, and the battery life is short.
5、 Comparison between cylindrical lithium battery and soft packed lithium battery
1. The safety performance of the soft pack battery is good. The soft pack battery is packaged with aluminum-plastic film in structure. In case of safety problems, the soft pack battery will generally blow up and crack, rather than explode like the steel shell or aluminum shell cell; It is superior to a cylindrical lithium battery in safety performance.
2. The weight of the soft pack battery is relatively light. The weight of the soft pack battery is 40% lighter than that of the steel shell lithium battery with the same capacity, and 20% lighter than that of the cylindrical aluminum shell lithium battery; The internal resistance of the soft pack battery is smaller than that of the lithium battery, which can greatly reduce the self-consumption of the battery;
3. The cycle performance of the soft pack battery is good, and the cycle life of the soft pack battery is longer. The attenuation of 100 cycles is 4% - 7% less than that of the cylindrical aluminum shell battery;
4. The design of the soft pack battery is relatively flexible, the shape can be variable, and it can be thinner. It can be customized according to the needs of customers, and new cell models can be developed. The cylindrical lithium battery does not have this condition.
5. Compared with cylindrical lithium batteries, the disadvantages of soft-packed batteries are poor consistency, high cost, and ease to leak. The high cost can be solved by large-scale production, and the leakage can be solved by improving the quality of the aluminum-plastic film.